Humans used to think the world was flat and also that the earth was at the centre of the Universe. Until recent times it was also widely believed that whales lived a similar lifespan to humans. However, not only has it been discovered that whales can live longer than us, they can live potentially up to 200 years of age!
The Bowhead whale has been instrumental in this theory being revised and staggering our perception of cetacean longevity. This whale is a right whale and has the largest mouth of any creature in existence. It is stocky and weighs in at a hefty 75 to 100 tonnes and can reach up to 20m in length.
This whale has been hunted traditionally by Inuits for food as well as been taken in serious numbers due to commercial whaling. It was initially thought that these whales lived to 60 to 70 years of age but two factors have radically changed this belief. A whale that was caught in Alaska in 2007 was found to have a very old harpoon point embedded between its neck and shoulder blade. On analysis it was discovered that the harpoon point was used in the 1880’s and fired from a bulky shoulder gun. This method was phased out shortly after by a more user friendly darting gun. The whale’s blubber protected it from the lethal effect of the harpoon point and went on to live a very long life. The second successful hunt of this whale and the involvement of scientists uncovered this spectacular secret.
The study also of the amino acids in the eyeballs of the whales over the past 10 years or so have also backed up this discovery. Various bowheads that have been hunted by Inuits in recent years have had their eyes studied and the whales have been successfully aged. Also six other whales have been found with similar harpoon points in their bodies since 2001.
The reason behind the whales longevity is purported to be due to their slow metabolic rate. They are large, slow moving creatures that live in very cold Arctic waters. Food can be scarce and their prey which comprises of plankton and krill can be hard to come by. This combination of extreme conditions and a challenging lifestyle has created a creature of exceptional merit and wonder. Call them what you may, Old Man of the Sea, or maybe the Nanas of the Ocean, but these are some seriously long lived whales. Long may they live!
Suzanne Burns 2014.